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Linda Dial

Christianity Notes

Chapter 12 Notes

Christianity: The Greatest Force in History


 12.1 The Greatest Event in History

 All through the ages that we call B.C., God has been preparing the world for the time when His Son would come to earth and die for the sins of mankind

 The set up

Ѳ ~1/2 the world’s people are peacefully under the__________________ government

Ѳ Roman roads that cross the empire will be used for spreading the gospel

Ѳ Greek language, understood by most eastern people, was used to write the____________________________________________

 When Jesus came to earth, it was to a little Middle Eastern village (___________________________________)

 Jesus grew up in __________________________, near the sea of Galilee

 Jesus preached for only _____________________ years

 Jesus was sentenced to death & crucified when He was about__________

 Every religious leader has died or will die.

Ѳ Jesus died too, but He arose from the dead and is alive now (which is the difference between Jesus and other gods)

 Apostle Paul was the 1st great missionary of the Christian church

Ѳ He preached the gospel in ___________________________________

Ѳ God used Paul & other apostles to write the books of the New Testament

 12.2 Nero & the Persecution of Christians

 Christians didn’t believe in Roman gods & refused to join public ceremonies to worship the emperor (_____________________________


 Emperor Nero (___________ emperor) was extremely evil (had his wife & mother murdered)

 During his rule- being a Christian was a crime

 July of A.D. 64, Rome was destroyed by fire (some blamed Nero, who blamed __________________________)

 Nero punished them by tying them to poles, smearing their bodies w/ pitch (_______________), & burning them as torches

 Christians were persecuted for ________________________ years

 Roman’s favorite sport= gladiator fights

Ѳ Armed men fighting & killing each other

Ѳ Took place in the Colosseum (huge outdoor arena built ~A.D. 80) which holds ________________________spectators

Ѳ For a change, they would sometimes import wild beasts from Africa & release them in the arena to fight men (or other beasts)

ф Christians were the favorites to fight the beasts

 Many accused of being Christians were put to death-- the only way to be pardoned was to _______________________________________________


Ѳ Elderly Christian in_____________________________

Ѳ Arrested & ordered to blaspheme the name of Christ

Ѳ Refused to blaspheme the One who saved him

Ѳ Executed


Ѳ Slave girl in Gaul (now ______________________)

Ѳ Rulers tortured her to compel her to change her faith

Ѳ She refused, sticking to her faith

Ѳ Thrown to the bulls & had her throat cut

 Martyrs (Christians who willingly gave up their lives rather than deny their Lord)

 The more Christians suffered, the more people______________________

 Catacombs=huge underground passages & rooms used a cemeteries

Ѳ Christians could find refuge and worship in them b/c Romans were afraid to enter burial places

 Roman custom was to burn the dead, but Christians buried theirs in the catacombs

 On catacomb walls, Christians drew pictures of Christ & scenes from the apostle’s lives & the Old Testament

 Counting Time after Christ

Ѳ Years after Jesus=A.D. (___________________________)

Ѳ 1st hundred (1-100) years after Christ are called the 1st century A.D.

Ѳ 2nd hundred (101-200) years are called the 2nd century, etc…

Ѳ The number of the century is always 1 ahead of the years (19th century is the 1800’s) because of the 1st century

 12.3 The Rise of Constantine

 A.D. 306= Constantine became emperor

 Commanded that Christians shouldn’t be persecuted

 Gave the people the freedom to worship any god they chose

 Later, Constantine changed his mind & mad it illegal to ___________ be a Christian

Ѳ Caused non-Christians to claim they were

Ѳ Influence of these fake Christians weakened the spiritual power of the church & led to false teachings & practices

 12.4 The Fall of Rome

 Constantine built a new capital

Ѳ Rebuilt Byzantium in Asia Minor & renamed it _________________ (now ___________________________)

 Roman empire had begun to weaken

Ѳ Selfishness & laziness

Ѳ Loss of justice & respect for law & order

Ѳ People lost their standards & the empire fell

 A nation or empire can last only as long as its people have high standards of right & wrong

 1st the empire was divvied into 2 parts

Ѳ Western= ____________________capital

ф Quickly destroyed, never to regain strength

Ѳ Eastern= _______________________________capital

ф Lasted for more than 1,000 years

 Germany (beyond the Rhine & along the Roman frontiers)

 At the time, Germans were made up of different tribes with their own names

Ѳ ‘barbarians’= drank alcohol; killed each other in drunken sprees; abandoned the helpless to die; sacrificed humans to their false gods

 410= _____________________captured & looted Rome

 455= ______________________invaded Rome (so senselessly destructive that we call people who destroy property w/out reason vandals)

 476= Germans got rid of the last Roman emperor & ruled Rome themselves

 12.5 The Middle Ages

 1,000 year period after the fall of Rome

 Aka ________________________

 Lasted from 500-1500

 Poor people (__________________________________________) promised to work for the landowners (lords--- wives called ladies)

Ѳ Peasants lived on the lord’s land (_______________________)

Ѳ Peasants promised to serve their lord as long as they lived, to do all the work he asked of them, & to give him part of the crops they grew or the goods they made

Ѳ In return, the peasants were lent a little piece of land, a small house w/ a dirt floor, & protection from outside enemies

 There were few schools for the common people

Ѳ Even if there was a school, the children learned to work with their hands all day & never learned to read

 Manor house= a castle made of stones & surrounded by high stone walls

Ѳ Some were further protected by ___________________ (deep water-filled ditches surrounding the castle)

Ѳ A drawbridge would be let down to let friends enter the castle & raised to keep out enemies

 If the manor was attacked, the peasants would run into the manor house for protection

 Knights (trained warriors kept by the lords) would protect the manor house

Ѳ Rode horses

Ѳ In later Medieval period-- dressed in heavy armor

 In the time of Constantine, the church became important & influential (other churches looked to Rome’s for leadership)

Ѳ A huge church organization developed w/ Rome as its HQ

Ѳ Bishop of the Roman church was the head of the entire Christian church (aka ______________________church)

Ѳ Head of the church was called the pope

 800= pope crowned Charles the Great (aka _______________________) as Roman emperor

Ѳ Government used the Roman church to back up its political authority & the church used the government to punish those that worshiped in a different way

 After Charlemagne’s son died, the empire fell apart

 962= pope & emperor Otto the Great formed the Holy Roman Empire (lasted until _________________________)

 869-1054= Catholic church split

Ѳ Roman Catholic Church= HQ in _________________

Ѳ Eastern Orthodox Church= HQ in _____________________________

 People of Middle Ages didn’t know that the Bible teaches that we are saved by faith alone

Ѳ B/c most people couldn’t read & only church leaders had Bibles

Ѳ Roman church taught that salvation was by & through the church

Ѳ People wanted eternal life, so they did as the church told them

ф Confessed ______________to priests

ф Performed acts of _________________(express their sorrow over their sin)

ф Filled the church treasury w/ gold

 Monks=church men who separated themselves from the world, promising to live a life of poverty & never marry

Ѳ Taught this would make them more acceptable to God

Ѳ Secluded monks (aka ________________) lived alone in caves or huts

Ѳ Friars traveled around teaching people

Ѳ Most lived together in monasteries

 Nuns= female equivalent of monks

Ѳ Lived in ______________________

 Monks & nuns provided what little education & medical attention that was available

 Monks did the world a favor by keeping the Bible safe from _______________________& hand wrote copies of the Scripture

 Christianity eventually brought about many changes

Ѳ Sunday established as a day of rest

Ѳ Slaves treated more kindly & then slavery ___________________

Ѳ Gladiatorial shows were done away with

Ѳ Human sacrifices & killing babies came to an end

Ѳ Strong families became important

Ѳ Women were treated better

Ѳ Poor & sick were cared for

 People from all over Europe made pilgrimages (_____________________

___________________________________________) to Jerusalem

Ѳ They thought they would receive special blessings for doing so

 1070= Jerusalem was captured by _______________________

Ѳ Mistreated Christians

Ѳ Destroyed churches

Ѳ Stopped pilgrimages

 Pope Urban II called upon the people to fight for the church & reclaim Jerusalem (_____________________________)

Ѳ Many crusaders had true religious reasons, but many went for selfish reasons

Ѳ 8 Crusades were attempted

Ѳ 1099= crusaders drove out the Turks & gained control of Jerusalem for _________________________years

Ѳ Changes to Europe b/c of Crusades

ф Broke down barriers between rich & poor

ф Put an end to the feudal system (rich own land & poor work it)

ф People became interested in trade & travel

ф Desire for Eastern goods led to the search for new trade routes (& ___________________________________________________)

 Peter of Bruis

Ѳ Priest in early 1100s

Ѳ Read the Bible & became a Christian

Ѳ Preached the truth for _______________________________________

Ѳ Burned alive at the stake for not teaching the Roman religion

Ѳ Followers= Petrobrusians

 Peter Waldo

Ѳ Late 1100s

Ѳ Had the Bible translated for people who lived in __________________

Ѳ Followers= Waldensians

ф Spread the gospel

ф Roman church called them heretics & set up a special court (_______________________________) to find & kill heretics who wouldn’t renounce & submit to the pope

 John Wycliffe

Ѳ England in the 1300s

Ѳ “Morning Star of the Reformation”

Ѳ Spoke out against the pope’s power & said people had a right to read the Bible for themselves

Ѳ 1st man to translate the entire Bible into _____________________

Ѳ Followers= Lolards

ф Made handwritten copies of Wycliffe’s translation

ф Traveled & taught the gospel

ф Church said anyone caught reading the English Bible would have his land, goods, & life taken from him

ˤ Bible was so precious that people didn’t stop

 John Huss

Ѳ After Wycliffe

Ѳ Bohemian (now _____________________________)

Ѳ Found Wycliffe’s writings & became convinced the Bible was the true authority

Ѳ Preached that only God can forgive sin & salvation comes through faith alone

Ѳ Condemned & burned at the stake

Ѳ By 1500s, most Bohemians were Bible followers

Ѳ Bohemia became a model of a free country w/ Christian standards

 12.6 The Invention of the Printing Press

 Johann Gutenberg (German in 1400s) wanted to make books more available, so he invented the printing press

 Movable type printing press= individual metal letters placed to spell out words, sentences, paragraphs

 Letters were arranged in a wooden box, covered w/ ink, & paper pressed on w/ a huge screw

 Once he had copied that page as much as he needed, he would rearrange the letters for a new page

 1st book Gutenberg printed was a Bible (_________________)

 Invention helped prepare the way for the Protestant Reformation

 12.7 Martin Luther & the Protestant Reformation

 1483= Martin Luther born in Germany

 Parents dedicated him to God & got him a good education (read & write German & Latin)

 Martin Luther studied law for a while, then gave it up to become a monk

Ѳ Thought that would make him good enough for Heaven

Ѳ Went w/out food, prayed for endless hours, lived in poverty

ф __________________________________________________

 While studying the Bible he found a passage that answered his longings (the just shall live by faith _____________________________________)

Ѳ He discovered it wasn’t what we did on earth, but by faith & knowing Jesus could we be saved

 1517= Friar John Tetzel traveled selling _____________________________

Ѳ Indulgences= certificates from the pope that excused a person from doing penance & shortened their required stay in purgatory

Ѳ Purgatory= a place of suffering where penitent souls remained after death to be cleansed of sin & made ready for Heaven

Ѳ Tetzel also said indulgences meant the pope forgave your sins

 Luther wrote 95 Theses (a list of reasons why the sale of indulgences was wrong) & nailed it to the door of his church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517 (marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation)

Ѳ Called “the spark that set Europe aflame”

 By 1520, Luther was Germany’s most popular man

 Luther had to hide from religious leaders for a while

 When he returned, he translated the Bible into German, wrote hymns for German people, & encouraged German cities to set up schools to teach the kids to read the Bible

 Luther encouraged people in other lands to do the same as Germany was doing

 Soon England, Scotland, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, & others began to follow the Bible instead of the pope

 Bible was translated into the languages of all these countries & schools were started

 The truths of the Bible gave the world greater progress in freedom, good government, widespread education, science, literature, & the fine arts than ever before

Published Sunday, December 15, 2019 6:55 PM by Linda Dial


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